The mountains of Poland are located mainly in the southern region of Polska. They run in a direction from west to east and include the Sudeten (Sudety), Beskidy, Tatras (Tatry), Gorce, Pienins (Pieniny) and the Bieszczady Mountains. North of the Beskidy Mountains you will find the Gory Swietokrzyskie range. All of these mountain ranges, except for the Sudeten and Gory Swietokrzyskie, belong to the Carpathian Mountain range (Karpaty), and form a natural southern border of Poland with Slovakia.
The Świętokrzyskie Mountains located in central Poland, are thought to be one of the oldest mountain ranges in Europe and are to be found in the vicinity of the city of Kielce.
These mountains consists of a number of separate ranges, with the highest being Łysogóry (lit. bald mountains). Together with the Jura Krakowsko-Częstochowska, they form a region called the Lesser Poland Uplands (Wyżyna Małopolska) and date back to the Caledonian Orogeny of the Silurian period and then were rejuvenated in the Hercynian Orogeny of the Upper Carboniferous period.
Orogeny refers to forces and events leading to a severe structural deformation of the Earth’s lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) due to the engagement of tectonic plates.
Świętokrzyskie Mountains (Holy Cross Mountains)
The Carpathians are a range of mountains of Poland forming an arc, from the Czech Republic (3%) in the northwest through Slovakia (17%), Poland (10%), Hungary (4%) and Ukraine (11%) to Romania (53%) in the east and on to the Iron Gates on the River Danube between Romania and Serbia (2%) in the south, about 1,500 km (932 miles) in length across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (the first being the Scandinavian Mountains which are 1,700 km (1,056 miles in length).
The highest mountain range within the Carpathians is the Tatras, found on the border of Poland and Slovakia, where the highest peaks exceed 2,600 m (8,530 ft). The second-highest range is the Eastern Carpathians in Romania, where the highest peaks exceed 2,500 m (8,202 ft).
The Carpathians are usually divided into three major parts: the Western Carpathians (Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia), the Central Carpathians (south eastern Poland, eastern Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania), and the Eastern Carpathians (Romania, Serbia).
They provide a habitat for the largest European populations of Brown Bears, Wolves, Chamois and Lynxes, with the highest concentration found in Romania. Over one third of all European plant species are located in this mountain range. The Carpathians and their piedmont also contain a concentration of thermal and mineral waters, with Romania home to over one-third of the European total. Romania is likewise home to the largest surface of virgin forests in Europe, excluding those found in Russia, totalling some 250,000 hectares (65%), with most of them located in the Carpathians, with the Southern Carpathians constituting Europe’s largest unfragmented forested area.
Bieszczady Mountains and Sanocko-Turczańskie Mountains
Mountains of Poland – Polska – Poland Travel Guide